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**About this book :- **
**Calculus An Intuitive and Physical Approach (2E) ** written by
** Morris Kline**.

In this book the justification of the theorems and techniques is consistently intuitive; that is, geometrical, physical, and heuristic arguments and generalizations from concrete cases are employed to convince. The approach is especially suitable for the calculus because the subject grew out of physical and geometrical problems. These problems tell us what functions we should take up, what concepts we want to formulate, and what techniques we should develop. In view of the fact that the human mind learns intuitively and that time does not permit both an intuitive and a rigorous presentation in elementary calculus, it seems to me that the approach adopted is the correct one.

The intuitive approach is explained to the student so that he will know what kind of evidence is being used to support arguments. Thus he is told that a graph of a typical function may not represent all functions. On the other hand, he is also told that the elementary functions are well behaved except at isolated points and that he can usually trust his intuition. As he works with the ideas of the calculus, he will sharpen his intuition. If he continues with mathematics, he will learn the analytical foundations and proofs that guard against the failings of intuition.

**Book Detail :- **
** Title: ** Calculus An Intuitive and Physical Approach
** Edition: ** 2nd
** Author(s): ** Morris Kline
** Publisher: ** Dover Publications, Inc.
** Series: ** Dover Books on Mathematics
** Year: ** 1998
** Pages: ** 863
** Type: ** PDF
** Language: ** English
** ISBN: ** 0-486-40453-6, 978-0-486-40453-0
** Country: ** US
** Download Similar Books from Amazon**

**About Author :- **

The author ** Elliott Mendelson ** is an American logician and prfessor of mathematics who burin in 1931). He was a professor of mathematics at Queens College of the City University of New York and the Graduate Center, CUNY.

Elliott Mendelson was Jr. Fellow, Society of Fellows, Harvard University, 1956-58. Elliott Mendelson taught mathematics at Queens College of the City University for more than 30 years, and is the author of books on logic, philosophy of mathematics, calculus, game theory and mathematical analysis.

The author ** Morris Kline ** was a mathematians as well as writer of history, philosophy and teaching of mathematics

Kline was born in a Jewish family in Brooklyn. He complete his graduates from Boys High School in Brooklyn, he studied mathematics at
** New York University **, earning a bachelor's degree in 1930, a master's degree in 1932, and a doctorate (Ph. D) in 1936. He continued his professional career at New York University as an instructor until 1942.

Kline become full professor in 1952. He taught at New York University until 1975, and wrote many papers and more than a dozen books on various aspects of mathematics and particularly teaching of mathematics.

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**Book Contents :- **
**Calculus An Intuitive and Physical Approach (2E) ** written by
** Morris Kline**
cover the following topics.
**1 WHY CALCULUS?**

1. The Historical Motivations for the Calculus

2. The Creators of the Calculus

3. The Nature of the Calculus
**2 THE DERIVATIVE**

1. The Concept of Function

2. The Graph or Curve of a Function

3. Average and Instantaneous Speed

4. The Method of Increments

5. A Matter of Notation

6. The Method of Increments Applied to y = ax2

7. The Derived Function

8. The Differentiation of Simple Monomials

9. The Differentiation of Simple Polynomials

10. The Second Derivative
**3 THE ANTIDERIVED FUNCTION OR THE INTEGRAL**

1. The Integral

2. Straight Line Motion in One Direction

3. Up and Down Motion

4. Motion Along an Inclined Plane

APPENDIX The Coordinate Geometry of Straight Lines

A1. The Need for Geometrical Interpretation

A2. The Distance Formula

A3. The Slope of a Straight Line

A4. The Inclination of a Line

A5. Slopes of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

A6. The Angle Between Two Lines

A7. The Equation of a Straight Line

A8. The Distance from a Point to a Line

A9. Equation and Curve
**4 THE GEOMETRICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DERIVATIVE**

1. The Derivative as Slope

2. The Concept of Tangent to a Curve

3. Applications of the Derivative as the Slope

4. The Equation of the Parabola

5. Physical Applications of the Derivative as Slope

6. Further Discussion of the Derivative as the Slope
**5 THE DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION OF POWERS OF x**

1. Introduction

2. The Functions xn for Positive Integral n

3. A Calculus Method of Finding Roots

4. Differentiation and Integration of xn for Fractional Values of n
**6 SOME THEOREMS ON DIFFERENTIATION AND ANTIDIFFERENTIATION**

1. Introduction

2. Some Remarks about Functions

3. The Differentiation of Sums and Differences of Functions

4. The Differentiation of Products and Quotients of Functions

5. The Integration of Combinations of Functions

6. All Integrals Differ by a Constant

7. The Power Rule for Negative Exponents

8. The Concept of Work and an Application
**7 THE CHAIN RULE**

1. Introduction

2. The Chain Rule

3. Application of the Chain Rule to Differentiation

4. The Differentiation of Implicit Functions

5. Equations of the Ellipse and Hyperbola

6. Differentiation of the Equations of Ellipse and Hyperbola

7. Integration Employing the Chain Rule

8. The Problem of Escape Velocity

9. Related Rates

APPENDIX Transformation of Coordinates

A1.Introduction

A2. Rotation of Axes

A3. Translation of Axes

A4.Invariants
**8 MAXIMA AND MINIMA**

1. Introduction

2. The Geometrical Approach to Maxima and Minima

3. Analytical Treatment of Maxima and Minima

4. An Alternative Method of Determining Relative Maxima and Minima

5. Some Applications of the Method of Maxima and Minima

6. Some Applications to Economics

7. Curve Tracing
**9 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL**

1. Introduction

2. Area as the Limit of a Sum

3. The Definite Integral

4. The Evaluation of Definite Integrals

5. Areas Below the x-Axis

6. Areas Between Curves

7. Some Additional Properties of the Definite Integral

8. Numerical Methods for Evaluating Definite Integrals

APPENDIX The Sum of the Squares of the First n Integers
**10 THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS**

1. Introduction

2. The Sinusoidal Functions

3. Some Preliminaries on Limits

4. Differentiation of the Trigonometric Functions

5. Integration of the Trigonometric Functions

6. Application of the Trigonometric Functions to Periodic Phenomena
**11 THE INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS**

1. The Notion of an Inverse Function

2. The Inverse Trigonometric Functions

3. The Differentiation of the Inverse Trigonometric Functions

4. Integration Involving the Inverse Trigonometric Functions

5. Change of Variable in Integration

6. Time of Motion Under Gravitational Attraction
**12 LOGARITHMIC AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS**

1. Introduction

2. A Review of Logarithms

3. The Derived Functions of Logarithmic Functions

4. Exponential Functions and Their Derived Functions

5. Problems of Growth and Decay

6. Motion in One Direction in a Resisting Medium

7. Up and Down Motion in Resisting Media

8. Hyperbolic Functions

9. Logarithmic Differentiation
**13 DIFFERENTIALS AND THE LAW OF THE MEAN**

1. Differentials

2. The Mean Value Theorem of the Differential Calculus

3. Indeterminate Forms
**14 FURTHER TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION**

1. Introduction

2. Integration by Parts

3. Reduction Formulas

4. Integration by Partial Fractions

5. Integration by Substitution and Change of Variable

6. The Use of Tables
**15 SOME GEOMETRIC USES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL**

1. Introduction

2. Volumes of Solids: The Cylindrical Element

3. Volumes of Solids: The Shell Game

4. Lengths of Arcs of Curves

5. Curvature

6. Areas of Surfaces of Revolution

7. Remarks on Approximating Figures
**16 SOME PHYSICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL**

1. Introduction

2. The Calculation of Work

3. Applications to Economics

4. The Hanging Chain

5. Gravitational Attraction of Rods

6. Gravitational Attraction of Disks

7. Gravitational Attraction of Spheres
**17 POLAR COORDINATES**

1. The Polar Coordinate System

2. The Polar Coordinate Equations of Curves

3. The Polar Coordinate Equations of the Conic Sections

4. The Relation Between Rectangular and Polar Coordinates

5. The Derivative of a Polar Coordinate Function

6. Areas in Polar Coordinates

7. Arc Length in Polar Coordinates

8. Curvature in Polar Coordinates
**18 RECTANGULAR PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS AND CURVILINEAR MOTION**

1. Introduction

2. The Parametric Equations of a Curve

3. Some Additional Examples of Parametric Equations

4. Projectile Motion in a Vacuum

5. Slope, Area, Arc Length, and Curvature Derived from Parametric Equations

6. An Application of Arc Length

7. Velocity and Acceleration in Curvilinear Motion

8. Tangential and Normal Acceleration in Curvilinear Motion
**19 POLAR PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS AND CURVILINEAR MOTION**

1. Polar Parametric Equations

2. Velocity and Acceleration in the Polar Parametric Representation

3. Kepler’s Laws

4. Satellites and Projectiles
**20 TAYLOR’S THEOREM AND INFINITE SERIES**

1. The Need to Approximate Functions

2. The Approximation of Functions by Polynomials

3. Taylor’s Formula

4. Some Applications of Taylor’s Theorem

5. The Taylor Series

6. Infinite Series of Constant Terms

7. Tests for Convergence and Divergence

8. Absolute and Conditional Convergence

9. The Ratio Test

10. Power Series

11. Return to Taylor’s Series

12. Some Applications of Taylor’s Series

13. Series as Functions
**21 FUNCTIONS OF TWO OR MORE VARIABLES AND THEIR GEOMETRIC REPRESENTATION**

1. Functions of Two or More Variables

2. Basic Facts on Three-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinates

3. Equations of Planes

4. Equations of Straight Lines

5. Quadric or Second Degree Surfaces

6. Remarks on Further Work in Solid Analytic Geometry
**22 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION**

1. Functions of Two or More Variables

2. Partial Differentiation

3. The Geometrical Meaning of the Partial Derivatives

4. The Directional Derivative

5. The Chain Rule

6. Implicit Functions

7. Differentials

8. Maxima and Minima

9. Envelopes
**23 MULTIPLE INTEGRALS**

1. Introduction

2. Volume Under a Surface

3. Some Physical Applications of the Double Integral

4. The Double Integral

5. The Double Integral in Cylindrical Coordinates

6. Triple Integrals in Rectangular Coordinates

7. Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates

8. Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates

9. The Moment of Inertia of a Body
**24 AN INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS **

1. Introduction

2. First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

3. Second-Order Linear Homogeneous Differential Equations

4. Second-Order Linear Non-Homogeneous Differential Equations
**25 A RECONSIDERATION OF THE FOUNDATIONS **

1. Introduction

2. The Concept of a Function

3. The Concept of the Limit of a Function

4. Some Theorems on Limits of Functions

5. Continuity and Differentiability

6. The Limit of a Sequence

7. Some Theorems on Limits of Sequences

8. The Definite Integral

9. Improper Integrals

10. The Fundamental Theorem of the Calculus

11. The Directions of Future Work

Tables

Index

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