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Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 8th Edition by Bruce R. Munson and Theodore H. Okiishi



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Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 8th Edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc. written by Bruce R. Munson , Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa and Theodore H. Okiishi , Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa and Wade W. Huebsch , Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia and Alric P. Rothmayer , Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa This book is intended to help undergraduate engineering students learn the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It was developed for use in a first course on fluid mechanics, either one or two semesters/terms. While the principles of this course has been well established for many years, fluid mechanics education has envolved and improved.


Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 8th Edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc. written by Bruce R. Munson and Theodore H. Okiishi and Wade W. Huebsch and Alric P. Rothmayer cover the following topics.


  • 1 Introduction
    Learning Objectives 1
    1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3
    1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 4
    1.2.1 Systems of Units 7
    1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 11
    1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 11
    1.4.1 Density 11
    1.4.2 Specific Weight 12
    1.4.3 Specific Gravity 12
    1.5 Ideal Gas Law 12
    1.6 Viscosity 14
    1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 20
    1.7.1 Bulk Modulus 20
    1.7.2 Compression and Expansion of Gases 21
    1.7.3 Speed of Sound 22
    1.8 Vapor Pressure 23
    1.9 Surface Tension 24
    1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 27
    1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29
    References 30
    Review Problems 31
    Conceptual Questions 31
    Problems 31

  • 2 Fluid Statics
    Learning Objectives 40
    2.1 Pressure at a Point 40
    2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 42
    2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 43
    2.3.1 Incompressible Fluid 44
    2.3.2 Compressible Fluid 47
    2.4 Standard Atmosphere 49
    2.5 Measurement of Pressure 50
    2.6 Manometry 52
    2.6.1 Piezometer Tube 52
    2.6.2 U-Tube Manometer 53
    2.6.3 Inclined-Tube Manometer 56
    2.7 Mechanical and Electronic PressureMeasuring Devices 57
    2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 59
    2.9 Pressure Prism 65
    2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 68
    2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 70
    2.11.1 Archimedes’ Principle 70
    2.11.2 Stability 73
    2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 74
    2.12.1 Linear Motion 75
    2.12.2 Rigid-Body Rotation 77
    2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 79
    References 80
    Review Problems 80
    Conceptual Questions 81
    Problems 81

  • 3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics—The Bernoulli Equation
    Learning Objectives 101
    3.1 Newton’s Second Law 101
    3.2 F ma along a Streamline 104
    3.3 F ma Normal to a Streamline 108
    3.4 Physical Interpretation 110
    3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 113
    3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation 117
    3.6.1 Free Jets 118
    3.6.2 Confined Flows 120
    3.6.3 Flowrate Measurement 126
    3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 131
    3.8 Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 134
    3.8.1 Compressibility Effects 134
    3.8.2 Unsteady Effects 136
    3.8.3 Rotational Effects 138
    3.8.4 Other Restrictions 139
    3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 139
    References 141
    Review Problems 141
    Conceptual Questions 141
    Problems 141

  • 4 Fluid Kinematics
    Learning Objectives 157
    4.1 The Velocity Field 157
    4.1.1 Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Descriptions 160
    4.1.2 One-, Two-, and ThreeDimensional Flows 161
    4.1.3 Steady and Unsteady Flows 162
    4.1.4 Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 162
    4.2 The Acceleration Field 166
    4.2.1 The Material Derivative 166
    4.2.2 Unsteady Effects 169
    4.2.3 Convective Effects 169
    4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates 173
    4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 175
    4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 176
    4.4.1 Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem 178
    4.4.2 Physical Interpretation 183
    4.4.3 Relationship to Material Derivative 183
    4.4.4 Steady Effects 184
    4.4.5 Unsteady Effects 184
    4.4.6 Moving Control Volumes 186
    4.4.7 Selection of a Control Volume 187
    4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 188
    References 189
    Review Problems 189
    Conceptual Questions 189
    Problems 190

  • 5 Finite Control Volume Analysis
    Learning Objectives 199
    5.1 Conservation of Mass—The Continuity Equation 200
    5.1.1 Derivation of the Continuity Equation 200
    5.1.2 Fixed, Nondeforming Control Volume 202
    5.1.3 Moving, Nondeforming Control Volume 208
    5.1.4 Deforming Control Volume 210
    5.2 Newton’s Second Law—The Linear Momentum and Moment-ofMomentum Equations 213
    5.2.1 Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation 213
    5.2.2 Application of the Linear Momentum Equation 214
    5.2.3 Derivation of the Moment-ofMomentum Equation 228
    5.2.4 Application of the Moment-ofMomentum Equation 229
    5.3 First Law of Thermodynamics—The Energy Equation 236
    5.3.1 Derivation of the Energy Equation 236
    5.3.2 Application of the Energy Equation 239
    5.3.3 Comparison of the Energy Equation with the Bernoulli Equation 243
    5.3.4 Application of the Energy Equation to Nonuniform Flows 249
    5.3.5 Combination of the Energy Equation and the Moment-ofMomentum Equation 252
    5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics—Irreversible Flow 253
    5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 253
    References 254
    Review Problems 255
    Conceptual Questions 255
    Problems 255

  • 6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Learning Objectives 276
    6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 277
    6.1.1 Velocity and Acceleration Fields Revisited 278
    6.1.2 Linear Motion and Deformation 278
    6.1.3 Angular Motion and Deformation 279
    6.2 Conservation of Mass 282
    6.2.1 Differential Form of Continuity Equation 282
    6.2.2 Cylindrical Polar Coordinates 285
    6.2.3 The Stream Function 285
    6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 288
    6.3.1 Description of Forces Acting on the Differential Element 289
    6.3.2 Equations of Motion 291
    6.4.1 Euler’s Equations of Motion 292
    6.4.2 The Bernoulli Equation 292
    6.4.3 Irrotational Flow 294
    6.4.4 The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow 296
    6.4.5 The Velocity Potential 296
    6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 286
    6.5.1 Uniform Flow 300
    6.5.2 Source and Sink 301
    6.5.3 Vortex 303
    6.5.4 Doublet 306
    6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 308
    6.6.1 Source in a Uniform Stream—Half-Body 308
    6.6.2 Rankine Ovals 311
    6.6.3 Flow around a Circular Cylinder 313
    6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 318
    6.8 Viscous Flow 319
    6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships 319
    6.8.2 The Navier–Stokes Equations 320
    6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids 321
    6.9.1 Steady, Laminar Flow between Fixed Parallel Plates 322
    6.9.2 Couette Flow 324
    6.9.3 Steady, Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes 326
    6.9.4 Steady, Axial, Laminar Flow in an Annulus 329
    6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 331
    6.10.1 Numerical Methods 331
    6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 332
    References 333
    Review Problems 334
    Conceptual Questions 334
    Problems 334

  • 7 Dimensional Analysis, Similitude, and Modeling
    Learning Objectives 346
    7.1 Dimensional Analysis 347
    7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 349
    7.3 Determination of Pi Terms 350
    7.4 Some Additional Comments about Dimensional Analysis 355
    7.4.1 Selection of Variables 355
    7.4.2 Determination of Reference Dimensions 356
    7.4.3 Uniqueness of Pi Terms 358
    7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 359
    7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 360
    7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 364
    7.7.1 Problems with One Pi Term 365
    7.7.2 Problems with Two or More Pi Terms 366
    7.8 Modeling and Similitude 368
    7.8.1 Theory of Models 368
    7.8.2 Model Scales 372
    7.8.3 Practical Aspects of Using Models 372
    7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 374
    7.9.1 Flow through Closed Conduits 374
    7.9.2 Flow around Immersed Bodies 377
    7.9.3 Flow with a Free Surface 381
    7.10 Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 384
    7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 387
    References 388
    Review Problems 388
    Conceptual Questions 389
    Problems 389

  • 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes
    Learning Objectives 400
    8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 401
    8.1.1 Laminar or Turbulent Flow 402
    8.1.2 Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 405
    8.1.3 Pressure and Shear Stress 406
    8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 407
    8.2.1 From F ma Applied Directly to a Fluid Element 407
    8.2.2 From the Navier–Stokes Equations 411
    8.2.3 From Dimensional Analysis 413
    8.2.4 Energy Considerations 414
    8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 416
    8.3.1 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 416
    8.3.2 Turbulent Shear Stress 418
    8.3.3 Turbulent Velocity Profile 422
    8.3.4 Turbulence Modeling 426
    8.3.5 Chaos and Turbulence 426
    8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 426
    8.4.1 Major Losses 427
    8.4.2 Minor Losses 432
    8.4.3 Noncircular Conduits 442
    8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 445
    8.5.1 Single Pipes 445
    8.5.2 Multiple Pipe Systems 455
    8.6 Pipe Flowrate Measurement 459
    8.6.1 Pipe Flowrate Meters 459
    8.6.2 Volume Flowmeters 464
    8.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 465
    References 467
    Review Problems 468
    Conceptual Questions 468
    Problems 468

  • 9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies Learning Objectives 480
    9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 481
    9.1.1 Lift and Drag Concepts 482
    9.1.2 Characteristics of Flow Past an Object 485
    9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics 489
    9.2.1 Boundary Layer Structure and Thickness on a Flat Plate 489
    9.2.2 Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution 493
    9.2.3 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for a Flat Plate 497
    9.2.4 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 502
    9.2.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow 504
    9.2.6 Effects of Pressure Gradient 507
    9.2.7 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation with Nonzero Pressure Gradient 511
    9.3 Drag 512
    9.3.1 Friction Drag 513
    9.3.2 Pressure Drag 514
    9.3.3 Drag Coefficient Data and Examples 516
    9.4 Lift 528
    9.4.1 Surface Pressure Distribution 528
    9.4.2 Circulation 537
    9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 541
    References 542
    Review Problems 543
    Conceptual Questions 543
    Problems 544

  • 10 Open-Channel Flow
    Learning Objectives 554
    10.1 General Characteristics of OpenChannel Flow 555
    10.2 Surface Waves 556
    10.2.1 Wave Speed 556
    10.2.2 Froude Number Effects 559
    10.3 Energy Considerations 561
    10.3.1 Specific Energy 562
    10.3.2 Channel Depth Variations 565
    10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow 566
    10.4.1 Uniform Flow Approximations 566
    10.4.2 The Chezy and Manning Equations 567
    10.4.3 Uniform Depth Examples 570
    10.5 Gradually Varied Flow 575
    10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 576
    10.6.1 The Hydraulic Jump 577
    10.6.2 Sharp-Crested Weirs 582
    10.6.3 Broad-Crested Weirs 585
    10.6.4 Underflow Gates 587
    10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 589
    References 590
    Review Problems 591
    Conceptual Questions 591
    Problems 591

  • 11 Compressible Flow
    Learning Objectives 601
    11.1 Ideal Gas Relationships 602
    11.2 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 607
    11.3 Categories of Compressible Flow 610
    11.4 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 614
    11.4.1 Effect of Variations in Flow Cross-Sectional Area 615
    11.4.2 Converging–Diverging Duct Flow 617
    11.4.3 Constant Area Duct Flow 631
    11.5 Nonisentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 631
    11.5.1 Adiabatic Constant Area Duct Flow with Friction (Fanno Flow) 631
    11.5.2 Frictionless Constant Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow) 642
    11.5.3 Normal Shock Waves 648
    11.6 Analogy between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 655
    11.7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 657
    11.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 658
    References 661
    Review Problems 662
    Conceptual Questions 662
    Problems 662

  • 12 Turbomachines
    Learning Objectives 667
    12.1 Introduction 668
    12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 669
    12.3 Basic Angular Momentum Considerations 673
    12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 675
    12.4.1 Theoretical Considerations 676
    12.4.2 Pump Performance Characteristics 680
    12.4.3 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 682
    12.4.4 System Characteristics and Pump Selection 684
    12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 688
    12.5.1 Special Pump Scaling Laws 690
    12.5.2 Specific Speed 691
    12.5.3 Suction Specific Speed 692
    12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 693
    12.7 Fans 695
    12.8 Turbines 695
    12.8.1 Impulse Turbines 696
    12.8.2 Reaction Turbines 704
    12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 707
    12.9.1 Compressors 708
    12.9.2 Compressible Flow Turbines 711
    12.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 713
    References 715
    Review Problems 715
    Conceptual Questions 715
    Problems 716

  • Appendix
    A Computational Fluid Dynamics 725
    B Physical Properties of Fluids 737
    C Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 742
    D Compressible Flow Graphs for an Ideal Gas (k 1.4) 744
    E Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
    F CFD Problems and Tutorials See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
    G Review Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
    H Lab Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
    I CFD Driven Cavity Example
    See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
    Answers ANS-1

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