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Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics (Second Edition) by Sylvie Braibant, Giorgio Giacomelli and Maurizio Spurio



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Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics (Second Edition) written by Sylvie Braibant, Giorgio Giacomelli and Maurizio Spurio . The book provides theoretical and phenomenological insights on the structure of matter, presenting concepts and features of elementary particle physics and fundamental aspects of nuclear physics.
Starting with the basics (nomenclature, classification, acceleration techniques, detection of elementary particles), the properties of fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are introduced with a mathematical formalism suited to undergraduate students. Some experimental results (the discovery of neutral currents and of the W± and Z0 bosons; the quark structure observed using deep inelastic scattering experiments) show the necessity of an evolution of the formalism. This motivates a more detailed description of the weak and strong interactions, of the Standard Model of the microcosm with its experimental tests, and of the Higgs mechanism. The open problems in the Standard Model of the microcosm and macrocosm are presented at the end of the book. For example, the CP violation currently measured does not explain the matter­-antimatter asymmetry of the observable universe; the neutrino oscillations and the estimated amount of cosmological dark matter seem to require new physics beyond the Standard Model. A list of other introductory texts, work reviews and some specialized publications is reported in the bibliography.


Particles and Fundamental Interactions: An Introduction to Particle Physics (Second Edition) written by Sylvie Braibant, Giorgio Giacomelli and Maurizio Spurio . cover the following topics.


  • 1. Historical Notes and Fundamental Concepts
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 The Discovery of Particles
    1.3 The Concept of the Atom and Indivisibility
    1.4 The Standard Model of Microcosm – Fundamental Fermions and Bosons

  • 2. Particle Interactions with Matter and Detectors
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Passage of Charged Particles Through Matter
    2.2.1 Energy Loss Through Ionization and Excitation
    2.2.2 “Classical” Calculation of Energy Loss Through Ionization
    2.2.3 Bremsstrahlung
    2.3 Photon Interactions
    2.3.1 Photoelectric Effect
    2.3.2 Compton Scattering
    2.3.3 Pair Production
    2.4 Electromagnetic Showers
    2.5 Neutron Interactions
    2.6 Qualitative Meaning of a Total Cross-Section Measurement
    2.7 Techniques of Particle Detection
    2.7.1 General Characteristics
    2.8 Ionization Detectors
    2.9 Scintillation Counters
    2.10 Semiconductor Detectors
    2.11 Cherenkov Counters
    2.12 The Bubble Chamber
    2.13 Electromagnetic and Hadronic Calorimeters

  • 3. Particle Accelerators and Particle Detection
    3.1 Why Do We Need Accelerators?
    3.1.1 The Center-of-Mass (c.m.) System
    3.1.2 The Laboratory System
    3.1.3 Fixed Target Accelerator and Collider
    3.2 Linear and Circular Accelerators
    3.2.1 Linear Accelerators
    3.2.2 Circular Accelerators
    3.3 Colliders and Luminosity
    3.3.1 Example: the CERN Accelerator Complex
    3.4 Conversion of Energy into Mass
    3.4.1 Use of Fixed Target Accelerators
    3.4.2 Baryonic Number Conservation.
    3.5 Particle Production in a Secondary Beam
    3.5.1 Time-of-Flight Spectrometer
    3.6 Bubble Chambers in Charged Particle Beams
    3.6.1 Conservation Laws
    3.6.2 The Electron “Spiral”
    3.6.3 Electron-Positron Pair
    3.6.4 An Electron-Positron “Tree”
    3.6.5 Charged Particle Decays

  • 4. The Paradigm of Interactions: The Electromagnetic Case
    4.1 The Interaction Between Electric Charges
    4.1.1 The EM Coupling Constant
    4.1.2 The Quantum Theory of Electromagnetism
    4.2 Some Quantum Mechanics Concepts
    4.2.1 The Schr¨odinger Equation
    4.2.2 Klein–Gordon Equation
    4.2.3 Dirac Equation
    4.3 Transition Probabilities in Perturbation Theory
    4.4 The Bosonic Propagator
    4.5 Cross-Sections and Lifetime: Theory and Experiment
    4.5.1 The Cross-Section
    4.5.2 Particle Decay and Lifetime
    4.6 Feynman Diagrams
    4.7 A Few Examples of Electromagnetic Processes
    4.7.1 Rutherford Scattering
    4.7.2 The eCe ! C Process
    4.7.3 Elastic Scattering eCe ! eCe (Bhabha Scattering)
    4.7.4 eCe !  Annihilation
    4.7.5 Some QED Checks

  • 5. First Discussion of the Other Fundamental Interactions
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 The Gravitational Interaction
    5.3 The Weak Interaction
    5.4 The Strong Interaction
    5.5 Particle Classification
    5.5.1 Classification According to Stability
    5.5.2 Classification According to the Spin
    5.5.3 Classification According to the Baryon and Lepton Numbers

  • 6. Invariance and Conservation Principles
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Invariance Principle Reminder
    6.2.1 Invariance in Classical Mechanics
    6.2.2 Invariance in Quantum Mechanics
    6.2.3 Continuous Transformations: Translations and Rotations
    6.3 Spin-Statistics Connection
    6.4 Parity
    6.5 Spin-Parity of the  Meson
    6.5.1 Spin of the  Meson
    6.5.2 Parity of the  Meson
    6.5.3 Particle–Antiparticle Parity
    6.6 Charge Conjugation
    6.6.1 Charge Conjugation in Electromagnetic Processes
    6.6.2 Violation of C in the Weak Interaction.
    6.7 Time Reversal
    6.8 CP and CPT
    6.9 Electric Charge and Gauge Invariance

  • 7. Hadron Interactions at Low Energies and the Static Quark Model
    7.1 Hadrons and Quarks
    7.1.1 The Yukawa Model
    7.2 Proton-Neutron Symmetry and the Isotopic Spin
    7.3 The Strong Interaction Cross-Section
    7.3.1 Mean Free Path
    7.4 Low Energy Hadron-Hadron Collisions
    7.4.1 Antibaryons
    7.4.2 Hadron Resonances
    7.5 Breit–Wigner Equation for Resonances
    7.5.1 The CC.1232/ Resonance
    7.5.2 Resonance Formation and Production
    7.5.3 Angular Distribution of Resonance Decay Products
    7.6 Production and Decay of Strange Particles
    7.7 Classification of Hadrons Made of u; d; s Quarks
    7.8 The JP = 3/2C Baryonic Decuplet
    7.8.1 First Indications for the Color Quantum Number
    7.9 The JP =1/2C Baryonic Octet
    7.10 Pseudoscalar Mesons
    7.11 The Vector Mesons
    7.12 Strangeness and Isospin Conservation
    7.13 The Six Quarks
    7.14 Experimental Tests on the Static Quark Model.
    7.14.1 Leptonic Decays of Neutral Vector Mesons
    7.14.2 Lepton Pair Production
    7.14.3 Hadron-Hadron Cross-Sections at High Energies
    7.14.4 Baryon Magnetic Moments
    7.14.5 Relations Between Masses
    7.15 Searches for Free Quarks and Limits of the Model

  • 8. Weak Interactions and Neutrinos
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 The Neutrino Hypothesis and the ? Decay
    8.2.1 Nuclear ? Decay and the Missing Energy
    8.2.2 The Pauli Desperate Remedy
    8.2.3 How World War II Accelerated the Neutrino Discovery
    8.3 Fermi Theory of Beta Decay
    8.3.1 Neutron Decay
    8.3.2 The Fermi Coupling Constant from Neutron ? Decay
    8.3.3 The Coupling Constant ?W from Fermi Theory
    8.4 Universality ofWeak Interactions (I)
    8.4.1 Muon Lifetime
    8.4.2 The Sargent Rule
    8.4.3 The Puppi Triangle
    8.5 The Discovery of the Neutrino
    8.5.1 The Poltergeist Project
    8.6 Different Transition Types in ? Decay
    8.6.1 The Cross-Section of the ?-Inverse Process
    8.7 Lepton Families
    8.8 Parity Violation in ? Decays
    8.9 The Two-Component Neutrino Theory
    8.10 Charged Pion Decay
    8.11 Strange Particle Decays
    8.12 Universality of Weak Interactions (II). The Cabibbo Angle
    8.13 Weak Interaction Neutral Current
    8.14 Weak Interactions and Quark Eigenstates
    8.14.1 The WI Hamiltonian and the GIM Mechanism
    8.14.2 Hints on the Fourth Quark fromWI Neutral Currents
    8.14.3 The Six Quarks and the Cabibbo Kobayashi–MaskawaMatrix
    8.15 Discovery of the W? and Z0 Vector Bosons
    8.16 The V-A Theory of CC Weak Interaction
    8.16.1 Bilinear Forms of Dirac Fermions
    8.16.2 Current–CurrentWeak Interaction

  • 9. Discoveries in Electron-Positron Collisions
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Electron-Positron Cross-Section and the Determination of the Number of Colors
    9.2.1 The Process eCe !  ! C
    9.2.2 The Color Quantum Number
    9.3 The Discovery of Charm and Beauty Quarks
    9.3.1 Mesons with c, c Quarks
    9.3.2 The J= Resonance Properties
    9.3.3 Mesons with b, b Quarks
    9.4 Spectroscopy of Heavy Mesons and ?S Estimate
    9.5 The  Lepton
    9.6 LEP Experiments and Examples of Events at LEP
    9.6.1 The LEP Detectors
    9.6.2 Events in 4 Detectors at LEP
    9.7 eCe Collisions at Ecm  91GeV. The Z0 Boson
    9.7.1 The Z0 Resonance
    9.7.2 Z0 Total and Partial Widths
    9.7.3 Measurable Quantities, invis and the Number of Light Neutrino Families
    9.7.4 Forward–Backward Asymmetries AFB
    9.7.5 Multihadronic ProductionModel
    9.8 eCe Collisions for ps > 100 GeV at LEP2
    9.8.1 eCe ! W C;W ;Z0Z0 Cross-Sections
    9.8.2 The W Boson Mass andWidth
    9.8.3 Measurement of ?S
    9.8.4 The Higgs Boson Search at LEP

  • 10. High Energy Interactions and the Dynamic Quark Model
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Lepton–Nucleon Interactions at High Energies
    10.3 Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
    10.3.1 Kinematic Variables
    10.3.2 Proton Form Factors
    10.4 Inelastic ep Cross-Section
    10.4.1 Partons in the Nucleons: Their Nature and Spin
    10.4.2 Electric Charge of the Partons
    10.5 Cross-Section for CC N Interactions
    10.5.1 Comparison with Experimental Data
    10.5.2 The Neutrino-Nucleon Cross-Section
    10.6 “Naive” and “Advanced” Quark Models
    10.6.1 Q2-Dependence of the Structure Functions
    10.6.2 Summary of DIS Results
    10.7 High Energy Hadron-Hadron Collisions
    10.8 Total and Elastic Cross-Sections at High Energy
    10.8.1 Elastic Differential Cross-Sections
    10.8.2 Total Cross-Sections
    10.9 High Energy Inelastic Hadron Collisions at Low-pt
    10.9.1 Outline on High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions
    10.10 The LHC and the Search for the Higgs Boson
    10.10.1 Higgs Boson Production in pp Collisions
    10.10.2 Higgs Boson Decays
    10.10.3 Search Strategies at LHC

  • 11. The Standard Model of the Microcosm
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Weak Interaction Divergences and Unitarity Problem
    11.3 Gauge Theories
    11.3.1 Choice of the Symmetry Group
    11.3.2 Gauge Invariance
    11.4 Gauge Invariance in the Electroweak Interaction
    11.4.1 Lagrangian Density of the Electroweak Theory
    11.5 Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. The Higgs Mechanism
    11.6 The Weak Neutral Current
    11.7 The Fermion Masses
    11.8 Parameters of the Electroweak Interaction
    11.8.1 Electric Charge Screening in QED
    11.8.2 Higher Order Feynman Diagrams, Mathematical Infinities and Renormalization in QED
    11.9 The Strong Interaction
    11.9.1 Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)
    11.9.2 Color Charge Screening in QCD
    11.9.3 Color Factors
    11.9.4 The Strong Coupling Constant ?S
    11.10 The Standard Model: A Summary

  • 12. CP-Violation and Particle Oscillations
    12.1 The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry Problem
    12.2 The K0  K 0 System
    12.2.1 Time Development of a K0 Beam. K0
    1 Regeneration. Strangeness Oscillations
    12.3 CP-Violation in the K0  K 0 System
    12.3.1 The Formalism and the Parameters of CP-Violation
    12.4 What is the Reason for CP-Violation?
    12.5 CP-Violation in the B0  B 0 System
    12.5.1 Future Experiments
    12.6 Neutrino Oscillations
    12.6.1 The Special Case of Oscillations Between Two Flavors
    12.6.2 Three Flavor Oscillations
    12.6.3 The Approximation for a Neutrino with Dominant Mass
    12.6.4 Neutrino Oscillations in Matter
    12.7 Neutrinos from the Sun and Oscillation Studies
    12.8 Atmospheric  Oscillations and Experiments
    12.8.1 Long Baseline Experiments
    12.9 Effects of Neutrino Oscillations

  • 13. Microcosm and Macrocosm
    13.1 The Grand Unification
    13.1.1 Proton Decay
    13.1.2 Magnetic Monopoles
    13.1.3 Cosmology. First Moment of the Universe
    13.2 Supersymmetry (SUSY)
    13.2.1 Minimal Standard Supersymmetric Model (MSSM)
    13.2.2 Supergravity (SUGRA). Superstrings.
    13.3 Composite Models
    13.4 Particles, Astrophysics and Cosmology
    13.5 Dark Matter
    13.6 The Big Bang and the Primordial Universe

  • 14. Fundamental Aspects of Nucleon Interactions
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 General Properties of Nuclei
    14.2.1 The Chart of Nuclides
    14.2.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
    14.2.3 Size of the Nuclei
    14.2.4 Electromagnetic Properties of the Nuclei
    14.3 Nuclear Models
    14.3.1 Fermi Gas Model
    14.3.2 Nuclear Drop Model
    14.3.3 Shell Model
    14.4 Properties of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction
    14.5 Radioactive Decay and Dating
    14.5.1 Cascade Decays
    14.6  Decay
    14.7 ? Decay
    14.7.1 Elementary Theory of ? Decay
    14.7.2 Lifetime Calculation of the 238 92U Nucleus
    14.8 ? Decay
    14.8.1 Elementary Theory of Nuclear ?-Decay
    14.9 Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Fission
    14.9.1 Nuclear Fission
    14.9.2 Fission Nuclear Reactors
    14.10 Nuclear Fusion in Astrophysical Environments
    14.10.1 Fusion in Stars
    14.10.2 Formation of Elements Heavier than Fe in Massive Stars
    14.10.3 Earth and Solar System Dating
    14.11 Nuclear Fusion in Laboratory

  • Appendix
    A.1 Periodic Table
    A.2 The Natural Units in Subnuclear Physics
    A.3 Basic Concepts of Relativity and Classical Electromagnetism
    A.3.1 The Formalism of Special Relativity
    A.3.2 The Formalism of Classical Electromagnetism
    A.3.3 Gauge Invariance of the Electromagnetism.
    A.4 Dirac Equation and Formalism
    A.4.1 Derivation of the Dirac Equation
    A.4.2 General Properties of the Dirac Equation.
    A.4.3 Properties of the Dirac Equation Solutions
    A.4.4 Helicity Operator and States
    A.5 Physical and Astrophysical Constants
    References
    Index

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